Stilbene and Chalcone Synthases: Related Enzymes with Key Functions in Plant-Specific Pathways

Bibliographic Details
Authors and Corporations: Schröder, Gudrun
Title: Stilbene and Chalcone Synthases: Related Enzymes with Key Functions in Plant-Specific Pathways
In: Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C, 45, 1990, 1-2, p. 1-8
published:
Walter de Gruyter GmbH
Physical Description:1-8
ISSN/ISBN: 1865-7125
0939-5075
Summary:<jats:p>Several years of extensive research using the new powerful techniques of molecular biology have enabled the direct comparison of functionally or evolutionarily related genes and their products at the nucleotide and aminoacid sequence levels. Two types of synthase with similar functions are discussed as an interesting example. Stilbene synthases, e.g. resveratrol synthase, produce the stilbene backbone as a key reaction in the biosynthesis of stilbene-type phytoalexins. Chalcone synthase is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of flavonoids, including certain phytoalexins derived from a 6′-deoxychalcone which is synthesized by cooperation of chalcone synthase with a reductase. Resveratrol and chalcone synthases utilize the same substrates (4-coumaroyl-CoA and 3 molecules of malonyl-CoA ) and catalyze the same condensing type of enzyme reaction (resulting in sequential addition of acetate units via malonyl-CoA ), but the products differ in the newly formed ring systems (resveratrol and naringenin chalcone). A comparative analysis of cloned DNA sequences and of the reaction mechanisms indicates that the two enzymes are closely related. It seems likely that the proteins possess a common scaffold for substrate recognition and for the condensing reaction, and that the different folding of an enzyme-bound intermediate prior to closure of the new aromatic ring is responsible for the formation of the different products. The same type of condensing reaction is utilized by the 2-ketoacyl-ACP synthases of fatty-acid biosynthesis. How ever, the available data indicate that these enzymes share little overall homology with either resveratrol or chalcone synthase. One exception maybe a short aminoacid sequence which corresponds to the active center of the condensing reaction in 2-ketoacyl-ACP synthases.</jats:p>
Type of Resource:E-Article
Source:Walter de Gruyter GmbH (CrossRef)
Language: Undetermined